Further Reading

Agrawal AF (2001) Sexual selection and the maintenance of sexual reproduction. Nature 411: 692-695.

Barbraud C and Weimerskirch H (2001) Emperor penguins and climate change. Nature 411: 183-186.

Benton TG and Grant A (1999) Optimal reproductive effort in stochastic, density-dependent environments. Evolution 53: 677-688.

Buckley YM, Hinz HL, Matthies D, and Rees M (2001) Interactions between density-dependent processes, population dynamics and control of an invasive plant species, Tripleurospermum perforatum (scentless chamomile). Ecology Letters 4: 551-558.

Bull JJ and Shine R (1979) Iteroparous animals that skip opportunities for reproduction. American Naturalist 114: 296-303.

Charnov EL and Schaffer WM (1973) Life history consequences of natural selection: Cole's result revisited. American Naturalist 107: 791-793.

Charnov EL (2002) Reproductive effort, offspring size and benefit-cost ratios in the classification of life histories. Evolutionary Ecology Research 4: 749-758.

Cichori M (2001) Diversity of age-specific reproductive rates may result from ageing and optimal resource allocation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 14: 180-185.

Clutton-Brock TH (1988) Reproductive Success. Studies of Individual Variation in Contrasting Breeding Systems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Cole LC (1954) The population consequences of life history phenomena. Quarterly Review of Biology 29: 103-137.

Hooper HL, Sibly RM, Hutchinson TH, and Maund SJ (2003) The influence of larval density, food availability and habitat longevity on the life history and population growth rate of the midge Chironomus riparius. Oikos 102(3): 515-524.

Inchausti P, Guinet C, Koudil M, etal. (2003) Inter-annual variability in the breeding performance of seabirds in relation to oceanographic anomalies that affect the Crozet and the Kerguelen sectors of the Southern Ocean. Journal of Avian Biology 34(2): 170-176.

McGovern TM (2003) Plastic reproductive strategies in a clonal marine invertebrate. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B -Biological Sciences 270: 2517-2522.

Myers RA (2001) ICES Journal of Marine Science 58: 937-951.

Nummi P and Saari L (2003) Density-dependent decline of breeding success in an introduced, increasing mute swan Cygus olor population. Journal of Avian Biology 34(1): 105-111.

Orzack SH and Tuljapurkar S (1989) Population dynamics in variable environments. VII. The demography and evolution of iteroparity. American Naturalist 133: 901-923.

Ranta E, Tesar D, and Kaitala A (2002) Environmental variability and semelparity vs. iteroparity as life histories. Journal of Theoretical Biology 217: 391-396.

Rödel H, Bora A, Kaiser J, et al. (2004) Density-dependent reproduction in the European rabbit: A consequence of individual response and age-dependent reproductive performance. Oikos 104(3): 529-539.

Roff DA (1992) The Evolution of Life Histories: Theory and Analyses. New York: Chapman and Hall.

Schaffer WM (1974) Optimal reproductive effort in fluctuating environments. American Naturalist 108: 783-790.

Shine R (1988) The evolution of large body size in females: A critique of Darwin's 'fecundity advantage' model. American Naturalist 131: 124-131.

Solberg EJ, Saether B-E, Strand O, and Loison A (1999) Dynamics of a harvested moose population in a variable environment. Journal of Animal Ecology 68(1): 186-204.

Stearns SC (1992) The Evolution of Life Histories. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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