Further Reading

Bruland KW (1980) Oceanographic distributions of cadmium, zinc, nickel and copper in North Pacific. Earth Planetary Science Letters 47: 176-198.

Carlos AG, Beatriz DA, and Vicente JDR (1988) The use of calcium resinate in the formulation of soluble matrix antifouling paints based on cuprous oxide. Progress in Organic Coatings 16: 165-176.

Codina JC, Munoz MA, Cazorla FM, et al. (1998) The inhibition of methanogenic activity from anaerobic domestic sludges as a simple toxicity bioassay. Water Research 32: 1338-1342.

Ermolayeva E and Sanders D (1995) Mechanism of pyrithione-induced membrane depolarization in Neurospora crassa. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61: 3385-3390.

Fernandez-Alba AR, Hernando MD, Piedra L, and Chisti Y (2002) Toxicity evaluation of single and mixed antifouling biocides measured with acute toxicity bioassays. Analytica Chimica Acta 456: 303-312.

Gatidou G, Kotrikla A, Thomaidis N, and Lekkas T (2004) Determination of two antifouling booster biocides and their degradation products in marine sediments by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. Analytica Chimica Acta 505: 153-159.

Hernando MD, Ejerhoon M, Fernandez-Alba AR, and Chisti Y (2002) Combined toxicity effects of MTBE and pesticides measured with Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna bioassays. Water Research 37: 4091-4098.

Ince NH, Dirilgen N, Apikyan IG, Tezcanli G, and UstUn B U (1999) Assessment of toxic interactions of heavy metals in binary mixtures: A statistical approach. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 36: 365-372.

Jonathan TP and Kenneth WB (1997) Trace metal exchange in solution by the fungicides Ziram and Maneb (dithiocarbamates) and subsequent uptake of the lipophilic organic Zn, Cu and Pb complexes into phytoplankton cells. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16: 2046-2053.

Konemann H (1981) Fish toxicity tests with mixtures of more than two chemicals: A proposal for a quantitative approach and experimental results. Toxicology 19: 229-238.

Koutsaftis A and Aoyama I (2006) The interactive effects of binary mixtures of three antifouling biocides and three heavy metals against the marine algae Chaetoceros gracilis. Environmental Toxicology 21: 432-439.

Nagata S and Zhou XJ (2006) Analyses of factors to affect the bioassay system using luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Journal of Health Science 52: 9-16.

Okamura H and Mieno H (2006) Present status of the antifouling systems in Japan: TBT substitutes in Japan. In: Konstantinou IK (ed.) The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 5: Antifouling Paint Biocides, part O, pp. 201-212. New York: Springer.

Ren S and Frymier PD (2005) Toxicity of metals and organic chemicals evaluated with bioluminescence assays. Chemosphere 58: 543-550.

Ruby EG (1996) Lessons from a cooperative, bacterial-animal association: The Vibrio fischeri-Euprymna scolopes light organ symbiosis. Annual Review of Microbiology 50: 591-624.

Stauber JL and Florence TM (1987) Mechanism of toxicity of ionic copper and copper complexes to algae. Marine Biology 94: 511-519.

Voulvoulis N, Scrimshaw MD, and Lester JN (2002) Comparative environmental assessment of biocides used in antifouling paints. Chemosphere 47: 789-795.

Wegrzyn G and Czyz A (2002) How do marine bacteria produce light, why are they luminescent, and can we employ bacterial bioluminescence in aquatic biotechnology? Oceanologia 44: 291-305.

Zhou XJ, Okamura H, and Nagata S (2006) Remarkable synergistic effect in antifouling chemicals against Vibrio fischeri. Journal of Health Science 52: 243-251.

Zhou XJ, Okamura H, and Nagata S (2006) Applicability of luminescent assay using fresh cells of Vibrio fischerifortoxicity evaluation. Journal of Health Science 52: 811-816.

Zhou XJ, Okamura H, and Nagata S (2007) Abiotic degradation of triphenylborane pyridine (TPBP) antifouling agent in water. Chemosphere 67: 1904-1910.

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