Further Reading

Arno SF and Hammerly RP (1990) Timberline: Mountain and Arctic

Forest Frontiers. Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers. Callaway RM (1995) Positive interactions among plants. Botanical

Review 61: 306-349. Choler P, Michalet R, and Callaway RM (2001) Facilitation and competition on gradients in alpine plant communities. Ecology 82: 3295-3308. Germino MJ, Smith WK, and Resor C (2002) Conifer seedling distribution and survival in an alpine-treeline ecotone. Plant Ecology 162: 157-168.

Grace J, Berniger F, and Nagy L (2002) Impacts of climate change on the treeline. Annals of Botany 90: 537-544. Holtmeier FK (1994) Ecological aspects of climatically-caused timberline fluctuations: Review and outlook. In: Beniston M (ed.) Mountain Environments in Changing Climates, pp. 223-233. London: Routledge. Innes JL (1991) High altitude and high latitude tree growth in relation to past, present and future climate change. Holocene 1: 168-173. Jobbagy EG and Jackson RB (2000) Global controls of forest line elevation in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Global Ecology and Biogeography 9: 253-268. K├Ârner C (1998) A re-assessment of high elevation treeline positions and their explanation. Oecologia 115: 445-459. Smith WK, Germino MJ, HancockTE, and Johnson DM (2003) Another perspective on the altitudinal limits of alpine timberline. Tree Physiology 23: 1101-1112. Smith WK and Knapp AK (1985) Montane forests. In: Chabot BF and Mooney HA (eds.) The Physiological Ecology of North American Plant Communities, pp. 95-126. London: Chapman and Hall. Stevens GC and Fox JF (1991) The cause of treeline. Annual Review of

Ecology and Systematics 22: 177-191. Sveinbjornsson B (2000) North American and European treelines: External forces and internal processes controlling position. AMBIO 29: 388-395.

Tranquillini W (1979) Physiological Ecology of the Alpine Timberline.New

York: Springer. Walter H (1973) Vegetation of the Earth in Relation to

Climate and Ecophysiological Conditions. London: English University Press.

Wardle P (1974) Alpine timberlines. In: Ivey JD and Barry R (eds.) Artic and Alpine Environment, pp. 371-402. London: Meuthuen Publishers.

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