Further Reading

Bhalla US and Iyengar R (1999) Emergent properties of networks of biological signalling pathways. Science 283: 381-387. Breckling B, Müller F, Reuter H, Holker F, and Franzle O (2005) Emergent properties in individual-based ecological models -introducing case studies in an ecosystem research context. Ecological Modelling 186: 376-388. Cariani P (1992) Emergence and artificial life. In: Langton G, Taylor C, Farmer JD, and Rasmussen S (eds.) Artificial life II, pp. 775-797. Redwood City: Addison-Wesley. Conrad M and Rizki MM (1989) The artificial worlds approach to emergent evolution. BioSystems 23: 247-260. Emmeche C, Kappe S, and Stjernfelt F (1993) Emergence and the Ontology of Levels. In Search of the Unexplainable. Arbejdspapir. Afdeling for Litteraturvidenskab. Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen.

Morgan CL (1923) Emergent Evolution. Williams and Norgate. Nielsen SN and Müller F (2000) Emergent properties of ecosystems. In: Joergensen SE and Müller F (eds.) Handbook of Ecosystem Theories and Management, pp. 195-216. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers.

Salt GW (1979) A comment on the use of the term emergent properties.

American Naturalist 113(1): 145-148. Wicken JS (1986) Evolution and emergence. A structuralist perspective.

Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum 79(1): 51-73. Wieglieb G and Broring U (1996) The position of epistemological emergentism in ecology. Senckenbergiana maritima 27(3/6): 179-193.

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