Further Reading

Basset A, DeAngelis DL, and Dlffendorfer JE (1997) The effect of functional response on stability of grazer population on a landscape. Ecological Modelling 101:153-162. Clements FE (1936) Nature and structure of the climax. Journal of Ecology 24: 252-284.

DeAngelis DL and Waterhouse JC (1987) Equilibrium and nonequilibrium concepts in ecological models. Ecological Monographs 57: 1-21.

Ellis JE and Swift DM (1988) Stability of African pastoral ecosystems: Alternate paradigms and implications for development. Journal of Range Management 41: 450-459.

Jeltsch F, Milton SJ, Dean WRJ, and Van Rooyen N (1997) Analysing shrub encroachment in the southern Kalahari: A grid-based modelling approach. Journal of Applied Ecology 34: 1497-1508.

Jones RJ and Sandland RL (1974) The relation between animal gain and stocking rate. Derivation of the relation from the results of grazing trials. Journal of Agricultural Science Cambridge 83: 335-342.

Nouvellon Y, Rambal S, Seen DL, et al. (2000) Modelling of daily fluxes of water and carbon from shortgrass steppes. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 100: 137-153.

Noy-Meir I (1975) Stability of grazing systems: An application of predator prey graphs. Journal of Ecology 63: 459-481.

Pickup G and Bastin GN (1997) Spatial distribution of cattle in arid rangelands as detected by patterns of change in vegetation cover. Journal of Applied Ecology 34: 657-667.

Richardson FD, Hahn BD, and Hoffman MT (2005) On the dynamics of grazing systems in the semi-arid succulent Karoo: The relevance of equilibrium and non-equilibrium concepts to the sustainability of semi-arid pastoral systems. Ecological Modelling 187: 491-512.

Rosenzweig ML and MacArthur RH (1963) Graphical representation and stability condition of prey-predator interactions. American Naturalist 97: 209-223.

Schwinning S and Parsons AJ (1999) The stability of grazing systems revisited: Spatial models and the role of heterogeneity. Functional Ecology 13: 737-747.

Van de Koppel J, Rietkerk M, and Weissing FJ (1997) Catastrophic vegetation shifts and soil degradation in terrestrial grazing systems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12: 352-356.

Vetter S (2005) Rangelands at equilibrium and non-equilibrium: Recent developments in the debate. Journal of Arid Environments 62: 321-341.

Westoby M, Walker B, and Noy-Meir I (1989) Opportunistic management for rangelands not at equilibrium. Journal of Range Management 42: 266-274.

Wiegand T, Milton SJ, and Wissel C (1995) A simulation model for a shrub ecosystem in the semiarid Karoo, South Africa. Ecology 76:2205-2211.

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