Blais JM, Macdonald RW, Mackay D, et al. (2007) Biologically mediated transport of contaminants to aquatic systems. Environmental Science and Technology 41:1075-1084.
Braune BM and Norstrom RJ (1989) Dynamics of organochlorine compounds in herring gulls: III. Tissue distribution and bioaccumulation in Lake Ontario Gulls. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 8: 957-968.
Carson R (1962) Silent Spring. Greenwhich, CN: Fawcett Publications.
Connell DE (1989) Biomagnification by aquatic organisms - A proposal. Chemosphere 19: 1573-1584.
Connolly JP and Pedersen CJ (1988) A thermodynamic based evaluation of organic chemical accumulation in aquatic organisms. Environmental Science and Technology 22: 99-103.
Gobas FAPC, Muir DCG, and Mackay D (1988) Dynamics of dietary bioaccumulation and faecal elimination of hydrophobic organic chemicals in fish. Chemosphere 17: 943-962.
Gobas FAPC, Wilcockson JB, Russell RW, and Haffner GD (1999) Mechanism of biomagnification in fish under laboratory and field conditions. Environmental Science and Technology 33: 133-141.
Hamelink JL, Waybrant RC, and Ball C (1971) A proposal: Exchange equilibria control the degree chlorinated hydrocarbons are biologically magnified in lentic environments. Transactions of the American Fish Society 100: 207-214.
Harrison HL, Loucks OL, Mitchell JW, et al. (1970) Systems studies of DDT transport. Science 170: 503-508.
Hunt EG and Bischoff AI (1960) Inimical effects on wildlife of periodic DDD applications to Clear Lake. California Fish and Game 46: 91-106.
Kidd KA, Schindler DW, Muir DCG, Lockhart WL, and Hesslein RH (1995) High-concentrations of toxaphene in fishes from a sub-arctic lake. Science 269: 240-242.
Mackay D (1981) Calculating fugacity. Environmental Science and Technology 16: 274-278.
Oliver BG and Niimi AJ (1988) Trophodynamic analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and other chlorinated hydrocarbons in the Lake Ontario ecosystem. Environmental Science and Technology 22: 388-397.
Rasmussen JB, Rowan DJ, Lean DRS, and Carey JH (1990) Food-chain structure in Ontario lakes determines PCB levels in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and other pelagic fish. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47: 2030-2038.
Schlummer MG, Moser GA, and McLachlan MS (1998) Digestive tract absorption of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and HCB in humans: Mass balances and mechanistic considerations. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 152: 128-137.
Swackhamer DL and Skoglund RS (1993) Bioaccumulation of PCBs by algae: Kinetics versus equilibrium. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12: 831-838.
Woodwell GM, Wurster CF, Jr., and Isaacson PA (1967) DDT residues in an east coast estuary: A case of biological concentration of a persistent insecticide. Science 156: 821-824.
Was this article helpful?
Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.