Further Reading

Blais JM, Macdonald RW, Mackay D, et al. (2007) Biologically mediated transport of contaminants to aquatic systems. Environmental Science and Technology 41:1075-1084.

Braune BM and Norstrom RJ (1989) Dynamics of organochlorine compounds in herring gulls: III. Tissue distribution and bioaccumulation in Lake Ontario Gulls. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 8: 957-968.

Carson R (1962) Silent Spring. Greenwhich, CN: Fawcett Publications.

Connell DE (1989) Biomagnification by aquatic organisms - A proposal. Chemosphere 19: 1573-1584.

Connolly JP and Pedersen CJ (1988) A thermodynamic based evaluation of organic chemical accumulation in aquatic organisms. Environmental Science and Technology 22: 99-103.

Gobas FAPC, Muir DCG, and Mackay D (1988) Dynamics of dietary bioaccumulation and faecal elimination of hydrophobic organic chemicals in fish. Chemosphere 17: 943-962.

Gobas FAPC, Wilcockson JB, Russell RW, and Haffner GD (1999) Mechanism of biomagnification in fish under laboratory and field conditions. Environmental Science and Technology 33: 133-141.

Hamelink JL, Waybrant RC, and Ball C (1971) A proposal: Exchange equilibria control the degree chlorinated hydrocarbons are biologically magnified in lentic environments. Transactions of the American Fish Society 100: 207-214.

Harrison HL, Loucks OL, Mitchell JW, et al. (1970) Systems studies of DDT transport. Science 170: 503-508.

Hunt EG and Bischoff AI (1960) Inimical effects on wildlife of periodic DDD applications to Clear Lake. California Fish and Game 46: 91-106.

Kidd KA, Schindler DW, Muir DCG, Lockhart WL, and Hesslein RH (1995) High-concentrations of toxaphene in fishes from a sub-arctic lake. Science 269: 240-242.

Mackay D (1981) Calculating fugacity. Environmental Science and Technology 16: 274-278.

Oliver BG and Niimi AJ (1988) Trophodynamic analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and other chlorinated hydrocarbons in the Lake Ontario ecosystem. Environmental Science and Technology 22: 388-397.

Rasmussen JB, Rowan DJ, Lean DRS, and Carey JH (1990) Food-chain structure in Ontario lakes determines PCB levels in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and other pelagic fish. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47: 2030-2038.

Schlummer MG, Moser GA, and McLachlan MS (1998) Digestive tract absorption of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and HCB in humans: Mass balances and mechanistic considerations. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 152: 128-137.

Swackhamer DL and Skoglund RS (1993) Bioaccumulation of PCBs by algae: Kinetics versus equilibrium. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12: 831-838.

Woodwell GM, Wurster CF, Jr., and Isaacson PA (1967) DDT residues in an east coast estuary: A case of biological concentration of a persistent insecticide. Science 156: 821-824.

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