Further Reading

Davies SP and Jackson SK (2006) The biological condition gradient: A descriptive model for interpreting change in aquatic ecosystems. Ecological Applications 16: 1251-1266.

European Commission (2000) Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 23 October 2000 Establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Water Policy. Official Journal of the European Communities, L327, 1-72. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission.

Jungwirth M, Muhar S, and Schmutz S (eds.) (2000) Developments in Hydrobiology: Assessing the Ecological Integrity of Running Waters. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Karr JR (2006) Seven foundations of biological monitoring and assessment. Biologia Ambientale 20(2): 7-18.

Karr JR and Chu EW (1999) Restoring Life in Running Waters: Better Biological Monitoring. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Karr JR and Kimberling DN (2003) A terrestrial arthropod index of biological integrity for shrub-steppe landscapes. Northwest Science 77: 202-213.

Kimberling DN, Karr JR, and Fore LS (2001) Measuring human disturbance using terrestrial invertebrates in the shrub-steppe of Eastern Washington (USA). Ecological Indicators 1: 63-81.

Natural Resources Journal (2004) Special Issue: Managing Biological Integrity, Diversity, and Environmental Health in the National Wildlife Refuges. Natural Resources Journal 44: 931-1238.

Niemi GJ and McDonald ME (2004) Application of ecological indicators. Annual Reviews of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 35: 89-111.

Pont D, Hugueny B, Beier U, etal. (2006) Assessing river biotic condition at a continental scale: A European approach using functional metrics and fish assemblages. Journal of Animal Ecology 43: 70-80.

USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) (2005) Use of Biological Information to Better Define Designated Aquatic Life Uses in State and Tribal Water Quality Standards: Tiered Aquatic Life Uses. EPA 822-R-05-001. Office of Water. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency.

Westra L (2005) Ecological integrity. In: Mitcham CD (eds.)

Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics, pp. 574-578. Detroit, MI: Macmillan.

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