Further Reading

Bertram BCR (1978) Living in groups: Predators and prey. In: Krebs JR and Davies NB (eds.) Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach, 1st edn., pp. 64-96. Oxford: Blackwell.

Caro T (2005) Antipredator Defenses in Birds and Mammals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Edmunds M (1974) Defence in Animals. New York: Longman.

Endler JA (1991) Interactions between predators and prey. In: Krebs JR and Davies NB (eds.) Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach, 3rd edn., pp. 169-196. Oxford: Blackwell.

Jeschke JM (2006) Density-dependent effects of prey defenses and predator offenses. Journal of Theoretical Biology 242: 900-907.

Krause J and Ruxton GD (2002) Living in Groups. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Laforsch C and Tollrian R (2004) Inducible defenses in multipredator environments: Cyclomorphosis in Daphnia cucullata. Ecology 85:2302-2311.

Lass S and Spaak P (2003) Chemically induced anti-predator defences in plankton: A review. Hydrobiologia 491: 221-239.

Mappes J, Marples N, and Endler JA (2005) The complex business of survival by aposematism. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 598-603.

Ruxton GD, Sherratt TN, and Speed MP (2004) Avoiding Attack: The Evolutionary Ecology of Crypsis, Warning Signals, and Mimicry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stibor H and Luning J (1994) Predator-induced phenotypic variation in the pattern of growth and reproduction in Daphnia hyalina (Crustacea: Cladocera). Functional Ecology 8: 97-101.

Swift MC (1992) Prey capture by the fourth larval instars of Chaoborus crystallinus. Limnology and Oceanography 37: 14-24.

Taylor BE and Gabriel W (1992) To grow or not to grow: Optimal resource allocation for Daphnia. American Naturalist 139: 248-266.

Tollrian R and Harvell CD (eds.) (1999) The Ecology and Evolution of Inducible Defenses. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

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