Further Reading

Bray JR (1964) Primary consumption in three forest canopies. Ecology 45: 165-167.

Camerano L (1880) Dell'equilibrio dei viventi merce la reciproca distruzione. Accademia delle Scienze di Torino, 15: 393-414 (trans. in the cited source by Jacobi CM and Cohen JE (1994) On the equilibrium of living beings by means of reciprocal destruction. In: Levin SA (ed.) Frontiers in Mathematical Biology, pp. 360-380. Berlin: Springer.

Carpenter SR and Kitchell JF (eds.) (1996) Cambridge Studies in Ecology: Trophic Cascades in Lakes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dixon AFG (2005) Insect Herbivore-Host Dynamics: Tree-Dwelling Aphids. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Elton CS (2001) Animal Ecology (original in 1926). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Frank KT, Petrie B, and Shackell NL (2007) The ups and downs of trophic control in continental shelf ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22(5): 236-242.

Lamprey HF (1964) Estimation of the large mammal densities, biomass and energy exchange in the Tarangire Game Reserve and the Masai Steppe in Tanganyika. East African Journal of Ecology 2: 1-46.

Lavigne D (2007) Cod Food Web. http://www.visualcomplexity.com/vc/ project.cfm?id=47 (accessed December 2007).

Lewis JK, Van Dyne GM, Albee LR, and Whetzal FW (1956) Intensity of Grazing: Its Effect on Livestock and Forage Production. Brookings, SD: Agricultural Experiment Station.

Macfadyen A (1964) Energy flow in ecosystems and its exploitation by grazing. In: Crisp D (ed.) Grazing in Terrestrial and Marine Environments, pp. 68-97. Oxford: Blackwell.

MacKenzie D (200l) Conclusions. In: Mass Coral Bleacing, ch. 7. http:// www.fisherycrises.com/coral7.html (accessed Dec 2007).

Odum EP, Connell CE, and Davenport LB (1962) Population energy flow of three primary consumer components of old-field ecosystems. Ecology 43: 88-96.

Petrides GA and Swank WG (1965) Population densities and the range-carrying capacity for large mammals in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Zoologica Africana 1: 209-225.

Riley GA (1956) Physical oceanography. In: Riley GA, Conver SAM, Deevey GB, et al. (eds.) Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection, Vol. 15: Oceanography of Long Island Sound, 19521954, pp. 15-46. New Haven, CT: Peabody Musuem of Natural History, Yale University.

Rosenheim JA (1998) Higher-order predators and the regulation of insect herbivore populations. Annual Review of Entomology 43: 421-447.

Rosenheim JA, Limburg DD, Colfer RG, et al. (2004) Herbivore population suppression by an intermediate predator, Phytoseiulus macropilis, is insensitive to the presence of an intraguild predator: An advantage of small body size? Oecologia 140: 577-585.

Shurin JB, Gruner DS, and Hillebrand H (2006) All wet or dried up? Real differences between aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B - Biological Sciences 273(1582): 1-9.

Srong DR (1995) Population and community ecology. In: McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology, p. 319. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Sterner RW and Elser JJ (2002) Ecological Stoichiometry: The Biology of Elements from Molecules to the Biosphere. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Thorarinsson K (1990) Biological-control of the cottony-cushion scale -Experimental tests of the spatial density-dependence hypothesis. Ecology 71(2): 635-644.

Trites AW (2003) Food webs in the ocean: Who eats whom and how much? In: Sinclair M and Valdimarsson G (eds.) Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem, ch. 8, pp. 125-143. Rome: FAO.

Wardle DA (2002) Communities and Ecosystems: Linking the Aboveground and Belowground Components. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Wiegert RG and Evans FC (1967) Investigations of secondary productivity in grasslands. In: Petrusewicz K (ed.) Secondary Productivity of Terrestrial Ecosystems, pp. 499-518. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Science.

Wiegert RG and Owen DF (1971) Trophic structure, available resources and population density in terrestrial versus aquatic ecosystems. Journal of Theoretical Biology 30(1): 69-81.

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