Bray JR (1964) Primary consumption in three forest canopies. Ecology 45: 165-167.
Camerano L (1880) Dell'equilibrio dei viventi merce la reciproca distruzione. Accademia delle Scienze di Torino, 15: 393-414 (trans. in the cited source by Jacobi CM and Cohen JE (1994) On the equilibrium of living beings by means of reciprocal destruction. In: Levin SA (ed.) Frontiers in Mathematical Biology, pp. 360-380. Berlin: Springer.
Carpenter SR and Kitchell JF (eds.) (1996) Cambridge Studies in Ecology: Trophic Cascades in Lakes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dixon AFG (2005) Insect Herbivore-Host Dynamics: Tree-Dwelling Aphids. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Elton CS (2001) Animal Ecology (original in 1926). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Frank KT, Petrie B, and Shackell NL (2007) The ups and downs of trophic control in continental shelf ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22(5): 236-242.
Lamprey HF (1964) Estimation of the large mammal densities, biomass and energy exchange in the Tarangire Game Reserve and the Masai Steppe in Tanganyika. East African Journal of Ecology 2: 1-46.
Lavigne D (2007) Cod Food Web. http://www.visualcomplexity.com/vc/ project.cfm?id=47 (accessed December 2007).
Lewis JK, Van Dyne GM, Albee LR, and Whetzal FW (1956) Intensity of Grazing: Its Effect on Livestock and Forage Production. Brookings, SD: Agricultural Experiment Station.
Macfadyen A (1964) Energy flow in ecosystems and its exploitation by grazing. In: Crisp D (ed.) Grazing in Terrestrial and Marine Environments, pp. 68-97. Oxford: Blackwell.
MacKenzie D (200l) Conclusions. In: Mass Coral Bleacing, ch. 7. http:// www.fisherycrises.com/coral7.html (accessed Dec 2007).
Odum EP, Connell CE, and Davenport LB (1962) Population energy flow of three primary consumer components of old-field ecosystems. Ecology 43: 88-96.
Petrides GA and Swank WG (1965) Population densities and the range-carrying capacity for large mammals in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Zoologica Africana 1: 209-225.
Riley GA (1956) Physical oceanography. In: Riley GA, Conver SAM, Deevey GB, et al. (eds.) Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection, Vol. 15: Oceanography of Long Island Sound, 19521954, pp. 15-46. New Haven, CT: Peabody Musuem of Natural History, Yale University.
Rosenheim JA (1998) Higher-order predators and the regulation of insect herbivore populations. Annual Review of Entomology 43: 421-447.
Rosenheim JA, Limburg DD, Colfer RG, et al. (2004) Herbivore population suppression by an intermediate predator, Phytoseiulus macropilis, is insensitive to the presence of an intraguild predator: An advantage of small body size? Oecologia 140: 577-585.
Shurin JB, Gruner DS, and Hillebrand H (2006) All wet or dried up? Real differences between aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B - Biological Sciences 273(1582): 1-9.
Srong DR (1995) Population and community ecology. In: McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology, p. 319. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Sterner RW and Elser JJ (2002) Ecological Stoichiometry: The Biology of Elements from Molecules to the Biosphere. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Thorarinsson K (1990) Biological-control of the cottony-cushion scale -Experimental tests of the spatial density-dependence hypothesis. Ecology 71(2): 635-644.
Trites AW (2003) Food webs in the ocean: Who eats whom and how much? In: Sinclair M and Valdimarsson G (eds.) Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem, ch. 8, pp. 125-143. Rome: FAO.
Wardle DA (2002) Communities and Ecosystems: Linking the Aboveground and Belowground Components. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Wiegert RG and Evans FC (1967) Investigations of secondary productivity in grasslands. In: Petrusewicz K (ed.) Secondary Productivity of Terrestrial Ecosystems, pp. 499-518. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Science.
Wiegert RG and Owen DF (1971) Trophic structure, available resources and population density in terrestrial versus aquatic ecosystems. Journal of Theoretical Biology 30(1): 69-81.
Was this article helpful?
Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.