Further Reading

Berger J (1999) Anthropogenic extinction of top carnivores and interspecific animal behaviour: Implications of the rapid decoupling of a web involving wolves, bears, moose and ravens. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B - Biological Science 266: 2261-2267.

Case DJ and McCullogh DR (1987) White-tailed deer forage on Alewives. Journal of Mammalogy 68: 195-197.

DeVault TL, Rhodes OE, and Shivik JA (2003) Scavenging by vertebrates: Behavioral, ecological, and evolutionary perspectives on an important energy transfer pathway in terrestrial ecosystems. Oikos 102: 225-234.

Polis GA and Hurd SD (1995) Extraordinarily high spider densities on islands: Flow of energy form the marine to terrestrial food webs and the absence of predation. Proceedings of the National

Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92: 4382-4386.

Schmitz OJ, Krivan V, and Ovadia O (2004) Trophic cascades: The primacy of trait-mediated indirect interactions. Ecology Letters 7: 153-163.

Vucetich JA, Peterson RO, and Waite TA (2004) Raven scavenging favours group foraging in wolves. Animal Behaviour 67: 1117-1126.

Wilmers CC, Crabtree RL, Smith DW, Murphy KM, and Getz WM (2003) Trophic facilitation by introduced top-predators: Grey wolf subsidies to scavengers in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Animal Ecology 72: 909-916.

Wilmers CC, Stahler DR, Crabtree RL, Smith DW, and Getz WM (2003) Resource dispersion and consumer dominance: Scavenging at wolf-and hunter-killed carcasses in Greater Yellowstone, USA. Ecology Letters 6: 996-1003.

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