Further Reading

Dame RF and Patten BC (1981) Analysis of energy flows In an intertidal oyster reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series 5: 115-124. Fath BD (2007) Community-level relations and network mutualism. Ecological Modelling 208: 56-67.

Fath BD and Patten BC (1998) Network synergism: Emergence of positive relations in ecological systems. Ecological Modelling 107: 127-143.

Fath BD and Patten BC (1999) Review of the foundations of network environ analysis. Ecosystems 2: 167-179.

Fath BD, Jorgensen SE, Patten BC, and straskraba M (2004) Ecosystem growth and development. Biosystems 77: 213-228.

Gattie DK, Schramski JR, Borrett SR, et al. (2006) Indirect effects and distributed control in ecosystems: Network environ analysis of a seven compartment model of nitrogen flow in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA - Steady state analysis. Ecological Modelling 194(1-3): 162-177.

Halnes G, Fath BD, and Liljenström H (2007) The modified niche model: Including a detritus compartment in simple structural food web models. Ecological Modelling 208: 9-16.

Higashi M and Patten BC (1989) Dominance of indirect causality in ecosystems. American Naturalist 133: 288-302.

Jorgensen SE, Fath BD, Bastianoni S, et al. (2007) Systems Ecology: A New Perspective. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Patten BC (1978) Systems approach to the concept of environment. Ohio Journal of Science 78: 206-222.

Patten BC (1981) Environs: The superniches of ecosystems. American Zoologist 21: 845-852.

Patten BC (1982) Environs: Relativistic elementary particles or ecology. American Naturalist 119: 179-219.

Patten BC (1991) Network ecology: Indirect determination of the lifeenvironment relationship in ecosystems. In: Higashi M and Burns TP (eds.) Theoretical Ecosystem Ecology: The Network Perspective, pp. 288-315. London: Cambridge University Press.

Whipple SJ and Patten BC (1993) The problem of nontrophic processes in trophic ecology: Towards a network unfolding solution. Journal of Theoretical Biology 163: 393-411.

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