Further Reading

Bolker B and Pacala SW (1999) Spatial moment equations for plant competition: Understanding spatial strategies and the advantage of short dispersal. American Naturalist 153: 575-602.

Clements FE (1936) Nature and structure of the climax. Journal of Ecology 24: 252-284.

Coffin DP and Lauenroth WK (1989) Disturbances and gap dynamics in a semiarid grassland: A landscape-level approach. Landscape Ecology 3: 19-27.

Coffin DP and Lauenroth WK (1990) A gap dynamics simulation model of succession in a semiarid grassland. Ecological Modelling 49: 229-266.

Coffin DP and Urban DL (1993) Implications of natural history traits to system-level dynamics: Comparisons of a grassland and a forest. Ecological Modelling 67: 147-178.

Coughenour MB and Chen D-X (1997) Assessment of grassland ecosystem responses to atmospheric change using linked plant-soil process models. Ecological Applications 7: 802-827.

Coupland RT, (ed.) (1992) Natural Grasslands. Ecosystems of the World, vol. 8A. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Dunkerley DL (1997) Banded vegetation: Development under uniform rainfall from a simple cellular automaton model. Plant Ecology 129:103-111.

Fernandez-Gimenez ME and Allen-Diaz B (1999) Testing a non-equilibrium model of rangeland vegetation dynamics in Mongolia. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 871-885.

Gilmanov TG, Parton WJ, and Ojima DS (1997) Testing the 'CENTURY' ecosystem level model on data sets from eight grassland sites in the former USSR representing a wide climatic/soil gradient. Ecological Modelling 96: 191-210.

Hanson JD, Parton WJ, and Innis GS (1985) Plant growth and production of grassland ecosystems: A comparison of modelling approaches. Ecological Modelling 29: 131-144.

Hibbard KA, Schimel DS, Archer S, Ojima D, and Parton W (2003) Grassland to woodland transitions: Integrating changes in landscape structure and biogeochemistry. Ecological Applications 13: 911-926.

Lauenroth WK, Urban DL, Coffin DP, et al. (1993) Modeling vegetation structure-ecosystem process interactions across sites and ecosystems. Ecological Modelling 67: 49-80.

Lavorel S, O'Neill RV, and Gardner RH (1994) Spatio-temporal dispersal strategies and annual plant species coexistence in a structured landscape. Oikos 71: 75-88.

Le Houerou HN, Bingham RL, and Skerbek W (1988) Relationship between the variability of primary production and the variability of annual precipitation in world arid lands. Journal of Arid Environments 15:1-18.

Matsinos YG and Troumbis AY (2002) Modeling competition, dispersal and effects of disturbance in the dynamics of a grassland community using a cellular automaton model. Ecological Modelling 149: 71-83.

Moloney KA and Levin SA (1996) The effects of disturbance architecture on landscape-level population dynamics. Ecology 77: 375-394.

Nouvellon Y, Moran MS, Seen DL, et al. (2001) Coupling a grassland ecosystem model with Landsat imagery for a 10-year simulation of carbon and water budgets. Remote Sensing of Environment 78: 131-149.

Nouvellon Y, Rambal S, Seen DL, et al. (2000) Modelling of daily fluxes of water and carbon from shortgrass steppes. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 100:137-153.

Noy-Meir I (1975) Stability of grazing systems an application of predator-prey graphs. Journal of Ecology 63: 459-482.

O'Connor TG (1993) The influence of rainfall and grazing on the demography of some African savanna grasses: A matrix modelling approach. Journal of Applied Ecology 30: 119-132.

Parton WJ, Scurlock JMO, Ojima DS, et al. (1993) Observations and modeling of biomass and soil organic-matter dynamics forthe grassland biome worldwide. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 7: 785-809.

Paruelo JM, Epstein HE, Lauenroth WK, and Burke IC (1997) ANPP estimates from NDVI for the Central Grassland Region of the US. Ecology 78: 953-958.

Paruelo JM, Lauenroth WK, Burke IC, and Sala OE (1999) Grassland precipitation use efficiency varies across a resource gradient. Ecosystems 2: 64-69.

Paruelo JM, Oesterheld M, Di Bella CM, et al. (2000) Estimation of primary production of subhumid rangelands from remote sensing data. Applied Vegetation Science 3: 189-195.

Paruelo JM and Sala OE (1995) Water losses in the Patagonian steppe: A modeling approach. Ecology 76: 510-520.

Peters DPC (2002) Plant species dominance at a grassland-shrubland ecotone: An individual-based gap dynamics model of herbaceous and woody species. Ecological Modelling 152: 5-32.

Phelps DG and Bosch OJH (2002) A quantitative state and transition model for the Mitchell grasslands of central western Queensland. Rangeland Journal 24: 242-267.

A J Underwood, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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