Further Reading

Boening DW (1998) Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to several ecological receptor groups: A short review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 39: 155-163.

Bosveld ATC and van den Berg M (1994) Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans on fish-eating birds. Environmental Reviews 2: 147-166.

Davies M (1999) Compilation of EU Dioxin Exposure and Health Data Task 7 - Ecotoxicology. European Commission DG Environment; UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) (97/322/3040/DEB/E1).

DeMarch BGE, DeWit CA, and Muir DCG (1998) Persistent organic pollutants. In: AMAP Assessment Report: Arctic Pollution Issues, pp. 183-371. Oslo: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP).

Gatehouse R (2004) Ecological risk assessment of dioxins in Australia. National Dioxins Program Technical Report No. 11. Canberra: Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage.

Giesy JP, Feyk LA, Jones PD, Kannan K, and Sanderson T (2003) Topic 4.8. Review of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in birds. Pure and Applied Chemistry 75(11-12): 2287-2303.

Giesy JP, Ludwig JP, and Tillitt DE (1994) Dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCBs and wildlife. In: Schecter A (ed.) Dioxins and Health, pp. 249-307. New York: Plenum.

Gray LE, Jr., Ostby J, Wolf C, Lambright C, and Kelce W (1998) The value of mechanistic studies in laboratory animals for the prediction of reproductive effects in wildlife: Endocrine effects on mammalian sexual differentiation. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17: 109-118.

Grimwood MJ and Dobbs TJ (1995) A review of the aquatic ecotoxicology of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality 10: 57-75.

Henshel DS (1998) Developmental neurotoxic effects of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds on domestic and wild avian species. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17: 88-98.

Loonen H, van de Guchte C, Parsons JR, de Voogt P, and Govers HAJ (1996) Ecological hazard assessment of dioxins: Hazards to organisms at different levels of aquatic food webs (fish-eating birds and mammals, fish and invertebrates). The Science of the Total Environment 182: 93-103.

Meyn O, Zeeman M, Wise MJ, and Keane SE (1997) Terrestrial wildlife risk assessment for TCDD in land-applied pulp and paper mill sludge. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16: 1789-1801.

USEPA (1995) Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Criteria Documents for the Protection of Wildlife DDT; Mercury; 2,3,7,8-TCDD; PCBs. Washington, DC: Office of Science and Technology for the Office of Water (EPA-820-B-95-008).

USEPA (2001) Critical Review and Assessment of Published Research on Dioxins and Related Compounds in Avian Wildlife - Field Studies. External Review Draft. Cincinnati, OH: National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development.

USEPA (2002) Dose-Response Assessment from Published Research of the Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and Related Compounds to Aquatic Wildlife-Laboratory Studies. Cincinnati, OH: National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development (EPA/600/R-02/095).

US EPA (2003) Non-dioxin-like PCBs: Effects and consideration in ecological risk assessment. Experimental Toxicology Division National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory office of Research and Development (NCEA-C-1340. ERASC-003. June).

Van Den Berg M, Birnbaum L, Bosveld A, etal. (1998) Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife. Environmental Health Perspectives 106: 550-557.

Van den Berg M, Birnbaum L, Denison M, et al. (2006) The 2005 World Health Organization re-evaluation of human and mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Toxicological Sciences 93(2): 223-241.

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