Ankley GT, DiToro DM, Hansen DJ, and Berry WJ (1996) Technical basis and proposal for deriving sediment quality criteria for metals. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 15: 2056-2066.
Clark AJ and Scheuhammer AM (2003) Lead poisoning in upland-foraging birds of prey in Canada. Ecotoxicology 12: 23-30.
DiToro DM, Allen HE, Bergman HL, et al. (2001) Biotic ligand model of the acute toxicity of metals. Part 1: Technical basis. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20: 2383-2396.
Eisler R (1988) Lead hazards to fish, wildlife, and invertebrates: A synoptic review. US Fish and Wildlife Service. Biological Report 85(1.14): 134.
Eisler R (2000) Handbook of Chemical Risk Assessment: Health Hazards to Humans, Plants, and Animals, Vol. 1, Metals, 738pp. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers.
Environment Canada/Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) (2005) Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. http:// www.cme.ca/assets/pdf/wqg-aql_summary_tablepdf (accessed September 2007).
Henny CJ (2003) Effects of mining lead on birds: A case history at Coeur d'Alene Basin, Idaho. In: Hoffman DJ, Rattner BA, Burton GA, Jr., and Cairns J, Jr. (eds.) Handbook of Ecotoxicology, 2nd edn., pp. 755-766. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishing.
Kendall RJ, Lacher TE, Bunck C, et al. (1996) An ecological risk assessment of lead shot exposure in non-waterfowl avian species: Upland game birds and raptors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 15: 4-20.
MaW-C (1996) Lead in mammals. In: Beyer WN, Heinz GH, and Redmon-Norwood AW (eds.) Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife: Interpreting Tissue Concentrations, pp. 281-296. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers.
MacDonald DD, Ingersoll CG, and Berger TA (2000) Development and evaluation of consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 39: 20-31.
Pattee OH and Pain DJ (2003) Lead in the Environment. In: Hoffman DJ, Rattner BA, Burton GA, Jr., and Cairns J, Jr. (eds.) Handbook of Ecotoxicology 2nd edn., pp. 373-408. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers.
Sanderson GC and Bellrose FC (1986) A review of the problem of lead poisoning in waterfowl. Illinois Natural History Survey Special Publication 4: 1-34.
Scheuhammer AM, Money SL, Kirk DA, and Donaldson G (2003) Lead fishing sinkers and jigs in Canada: Review of their use patterns and toxic impacts on wildlife. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper no. 108, 48pp. Ottawa: Environment Canada.
Schmitt CJ and Finger SE (1982) The transport, fate, and effects of trace metals in the Big and Black River watersheds, southeastern Missouri. US Fish and Wildlife Service. Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory Columbia, MO. Project Completion Report to the St. Louis District, US Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis, MO, 167pp.
Schmitt CJ, Whyte JJ, Brumbaugh WG, and Tillitt DE (2005)
Biochemical effects of lead, zinc, and cadmium from mining on fish in the Tri-States District of Northeastern Oklahoma. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24: 1483-1495.
Stevenson AL, Scheuhammer AM, and Chan HM (2005) Effects of lead shot regulations on lead accumulation in ducks in Canada. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 48: 405-413.
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National recommended water quality criteria. Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology (4304T), http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/ wqcriteria (accessed January 2008).
Wixson BG and Davies BE (eds.) (1993) Lead in Soil: Recommended Guidelines, 132pp. Northwood: Science Reviews.
Was this article helpful?