Further Reading

Duty SM, Calafat AM, Silva MJ, Ryan L, and Hauser R (2005) Phthalate exposure and reproductive hormones in adult men. Human Reproduction 20: 604-610.

Gray LE, Jr., Wilson VS, Stoker T, et al. (2006) Adverse effects of environmental antiandrogens and androgens on reproductive development in mammals. International Journal of Andrology 29: 96-104.

Green R, Hauser R, Calafat AM, et al. (2005) Use of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-containing medical products and urinary levels of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in neonatal intensive care unit infants. Environmental Health Perspectives. 113: 1222-1225.

Jacobson JL and Jacobson SW (1996) Intellectual impairment in children exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls in utero. The New England Journal of Medicine 335: 783-789.

Main KM, Mortensen GK, Kaleva M, etal. (2006) Human breast milk contamination with phthalates and alterations of endogenous reproductive hormones in infants three months of age. Environmental Health Perspectives 114: 270-276.

Michaels D (2005) Doubt is their product. Scientific American 292: 96-101.

Parks LG, Ostby JS, Lambright CR, et al. (2000) The plasticizer diethylhexyl phthalate induces malformations by decreasing fetal testosterone synthesis during sexual differentiation in the male rat. Toxicological Sciences 58: 339-349.

Silva MJ, Barr DB, Reidy JA, et al. (2004) Urinary levels of seven phthalate metabolites in the US. population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000. Environmental Health Perspectives 112: 331-338.

Skakkebaek NE, Rajpert-De Meyts E, and Main KM (2001) Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: An increasingly common developmental disorder with environmental aspects. Human Reproduction 16:972-978.

Swan SH, Brazil C, Drobnis EZ, etal. (2003) Geographic differences in semen quality of fertile US males. Environmental Health Perspectives 111: 414-420.

Swan SH and Elkin EP (1999) Declining semen quality: Can the past inform the present? BioEssays 21: 614-621.

Swan SH, Kruse RL, Fan L, et al. (2003) Semen quality in relation to biomarkers of pesticide exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives 111: 1478-1484.

Swan S, Main K, Liu F, et al. (2005) Decrease in anogenital distance among male infants with prenatal phthalate exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives 113: 1056-1061.

Thornton JW, McCally M, and Houlihan J (2003) Biomonitoring of industrial pollutants: Health and body implications of the chemical body burden. Public Health Reports 117: 315-323.

Vreugdenhil HJ, Slijper FM, Mulder PG, and Weisglas-Kuperus N (2002) Effects of perinatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins on play behavior in Dutch children at school age. Environmental Health Perspectives 110: A593-A598.

Wilson VS, Lambright C, Furr J, et al. (2004) Phthalate ester-

induced gubernacular lesions are associated with reduced insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis. Toxicology Letters 146: 207-215.

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