Further Reading

Bliss CI (1937) The calculation of the time-mortality curve. Annals of Applied Biology 24: 815-852.

Buikema AL, Niederlehner BR, and Cairns J (1982) Biological monitoring, Part IV-toxicity testing. Water Research 16: 239-262.

Crane M and Newman MC (2000) What level of effect is a no observed effect? Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19: 516-519.

Faustman EM and Omenn GS (1996) Risk assessment. In: Klaassen CD (ed.) Casarett and Doull's Toxicology, 5th edn., pp. 75-88. New York NY: McGraw-Hill.

Finney DJ (1978) Statistical Method in Biological Assay, 3rd edn. London: Charles Griffin and Company.

Gad SC and Weil CS (1988) Statistics and Experimental Design for Toxicologists. Caldwell, NJ: Telford Press.

Hamilton MA, Russo RC, and Thurston RV (1977) Trimmed Spearman-Karber method for estimating median lethal concentrations in toxicity bioassays. Environmental Science and Technology 11: 714-719.

Newman MC (1995) Quantitative Methods in Aquatic Ecotoxicology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC/Lewis Publishers.

Salsburg DS (1986) Statistics for Toxicologists. New York: Dekker.

Sprague JB (1969) Measurement of pollutant toxicity to fish. I. Bioassay methods for acute toxicity. Water Research 3: 793-821.

Sprague JB (1971) Measurement of pollutant toxicity to fish. III. Sublethal effects and 'safe' concentrations. Water Research 5: 245-266.

SuterGW, II (1993) Ecological Risk Assessment. Boca Raton, FL: CRC/ Lewis Publishers.

US EPA (2002) Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms, 5th edn. EPA-821-R-02e012. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

US EPA (2002) Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms, 4th edn. EPA-821-R-02-013. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

Zhao Y and Newman MC (2003) Shortcomings of the laboratory derived LC50 for predicting mortality in field populations: Exposure duration and latent mortality. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23:2147-2153.

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