Amaro A, Reed D, and Soares P (eds.) (2003) Modelling Forest Systems.
Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing. Barrett TM (2001) Models of vegetative change for landscape planning: A comparison of FETM, LANDSUM, SIMPPLLE, and VDDT. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-76-WWW. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.
Battaglia M, Sands P, White D, and Mummery D (2004) CABALA: A linked carbon, water and nitrogen model of forest growth for silvicultural decision support. Forest Ecology and Management 193: 251-282.
Bella IE (1971) A new competition model for individual trees. Forest Science 17: 364-372.
Botkin DB (1993) Forest Dynamics: An Ecological Model. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bugmann H (2001) A review of forest gap models. Climatic Change 51: 259-305.
Dixon GE (comp.) (2002) Essential FVS: A User's Guide to the Forest Vegetation Simulator. Internal Report. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Forest Management Service Center.
Dixon RK, Meldahl RS, Ruark GA, and Warren WG (eds.) (1990) Process Modeling of Forest Growth Responses to Environmental Stress. Portland, OR: Timber Press, Inc.
Dufrene E, Davi H, Francois C, et al. (2005) Modelling carbon and water cycles in a beech forest. Part 1: Model description and uncertainty analysis on modelled NEE. Ecological Modelling 185: 407-436.
Ehleringer JR and Field CB (eds.) (1993) Scaling Physiological Processes. Leaf to Globe. New York: Academic Press.
Farquhar GD and Sharkey TD (1982) Stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Physiolology 33: 317-345.
Farquhar GD and von Caemmerer S (1982) Modeling of photosynthetic response to environmental conditions. In: Lange OL, Nobel PS, Osmond CB, and Ziegler H (eds.) Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology 12B, Vol. II: Physiological Plant Ecology, pp. 549-587. Berlin: Springer.
Farquhar GD, von Caemmerer S, and Berry JA (1980) A biochemical model of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in leaves of C3 species. Planta 149: 78-90.
Glenn-Lewin DC, Peet RK, and Veblen TT (eds.) (1992) Plant Succession: Theory and Practice. New York: Chapman and Hall.
Hatch CR, Gerrard DJ, and Tappeiner JC, II (1975) Exposed crown surface area: A mathematical index of individual tree growth potential. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 5: 224-228.
Hegyi F (1974) A simulation model for managing jack-pine stands. In: Fries J (ed.) International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, Proceedings of Meetings in 1973, Growth Models for Tree and Stand Simulation, Royal College of Forestry, research note no. 30, pp. 74-90. Sweden: Stockholm.
Homann PS, McKane RB, and Sollins P (2000) Belowground processes in forest-ecosystem biogeochemical simulation models. Forest Ecology and Management 138: 3-18.
Hunt ER, Jr., Lavigne MB, and Franklin SE (1999) Factors controlling the decline of net primary production with stand age for balsam fir in Newfoundland assessed using an ecosystem simulation model. Ecological Modelling 122: 151-164.
Hunt ER, Jr., Piper SC, Nemani R, et al. (1996) Global net carbon exchange and intra-annual atmospheric CO2 concentrations predicted by an ecosystem process model and three-dimensional atmospheric transport model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10: 431-456.
Johnsen K, Samuelson L, Teskey R, McNulty S, and Fox T (2001) Process models as tools in forestry research and management. Forest Science 47: 2-8.
Komarov A, Chertov O, Zudin S, et al. (2003) EFIMOD 2 - a model of growth and cycling of elements in boreal forest ecosystems. Ecological Modelling 170: 373-392.
Landsberg JJ and Waring RH (1997) A generalised model of forest productivity using simplified concepts of radiation-use efficiency, carbon balance and partitioning. Forest Ecology and Management 95: 209-228.
Landsberg J (2003) Modelling forest ecosystems: State of the art, challenges, and future directions. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33: 387-395.
Medlyn BE, Robinson AP, Clement R, and McMurtrie RE (2005) On the validation of models of forest CO2 exchange using eddy covariance data: Some perils and pitfalls. Tree Physiology 25: 839-857.
Miner CL, Walters NC, and Belli ML (1988) A guide to the TWIGS program for the North Central United States, General Technical Report NC-125. St. Paul, MN: USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station.
Mladenoff DJ (2004) LANDIS and forest landscape models. Ecological Modelling 180: 7-19.
Newton PF (1997) Stand density management diagrams: Review of their development and utility in stand-level management planning. Forest Ecology and Management 98: 251-265.
Pacala SW, Canham CD, and Silander JAJ (1993) Forest models defined by field measurements. Part I: The design of a northeastern forest simulator. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23:1980-1988.
Parton WJ, Anderson DW, Cole CV, and Stewart JWB (1983) Simulation of soil organic matter formation and mineralization in semiarid agroecosystems. In: Lowrance RR, Todd RL, Asmussen LE, and Leonard RA (eds.) Special Publication No. 23: Nutrient Cycling in Agricultural Ecosystems, pp. 533-550. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia, College of Agriculture Experiment Stations.
Parton WJ, Schimel DS, Cole CV, and Ojima DS (1987) Analysis of factors controlling soil organic levels of grasslands in the Great Plains. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51:1173-1179.
Perttunen J, Sievanen R, and Nikinmaa E (1998) LIGNUM: A model combining the structure and the functioning of trees. Ecological Modelling 108: 189-198.
Pienaar LV and Turnbull KJ (1973) The Chapman-Richards generalization of Von Bertalanffy's growth model for basal area growth and yield in even-aged stands. Forest Science 19: 2-22.
Radtke PJ, BurkTE, and Bolstad P (2001) Estimates of the distributions of forest ecosystem model inputs for deciduous forests of eastern North America. Tree Physiology 21: 505-512.
Reineke LH (1933) Perfecting a stand-density index for even-aged forests. Journal of Agriculture Research 46: 627-638.
Reynolds JH and Ford ED (2005) Improving competition representation in theoretical models of self-thinning: A critical review. Journal of Ecology 93: 362-372.
Robinson AP and Ek AR (2000) The consequences of hierarchy for modeling in forest ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30:1837-1846.
Rouvinen S and Kuuluvainen T (1997) Structure and asymmetry of tree crowns in relation to local competition in a natural mature Scots pine forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27: 890-902.
Running SW and Coughlan JC (1988) A general model of forest ecosystem processes for regional applications. Part I: Hydrologic balance, canopy gas exchange and primary production processes. Ecological Modelling 42: 125-154.
Running SW and Gower ST (1991) FOREST-BGC, a general model of forest ecosystem processes for regional applications. Part II: Dynamic carbon allocation and nitrogen budgets. Tree Physiology 9: 147-160.
Schroder J and Gadow K von (1999) Testing a new competition index for Maritime pine in northwestern Spain. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29: 280-283.
Schwalm CR and Ek AR (2001) Climate change and site: Relevant mechanisms and modeling techniques. Forest Ecology and Management 150: 241-257.
Shugart HH (1984) A Theory of Forest Dynamics. New York: SpringerVerlag.
Sievanen R, Nikinmaa E, Nygren P, Ozier-Lafontaine H, Perttunen J, and Hakula H (2000) Components of functional-structural tree models. Annals of Forest Science 57: 399-412.
Stadt KJ, Huston C, and Lieffers VJ (2002) A comparison of non-spatial and spatial, empirical and resource-based competition indices for predicting the diameter growth of trees in maturing boreal mixedwood stands. Edmonton, AB Sustainable Forest Management Network, Project Report 2002-8.
Stage AR (1973) Prognosis model for stand development, Research Paper INT-137. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
Steneker GA and Jarvis JM (1963) A preliminary study to access competition in a white spruce-trembling aspen stand. Forestry Chronicle 39: 334-336.
Urban DL, Bonan GB, Smith TM, and Shugart HH (1991) Spatial applications of gap models. Forest Ecology and Management 42: 95-110.
Vanclay JK (1994) Modelling Forest Growth and Yield: Applications to Mixed Tropical Forests. Wallingford, UK: CABI.
Vettenranta J (1999) Distance-dependent models for predicting the development of mixed coniferous forests in Finland. Silva Fennica 33: 51-72.
Yoda K, Kira T, Ogawa H, and Ozumi K (1963) Self-thinning in overcrowded pure stands under cultivated and natural conditions. Journal of Biology of Osaka City University 14: 107-129.
Was this article helpful?
How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.