Further Reading

Acharya K, Kyle M, and Elser JJ (2004) Biological stoichiometry of Daphnia growth: An ecophysiological test of the growth rate hypothesis. Limnology and Oceanography 49: 656-665. Baudouin-Cornu P, Surdin-Kerjan Y, Marliere P, and Thomas D (2001) Molecular evolution of protein atomic composition. Science 293: 297-300.

Bowen HJM (1979) Environmental Chemistry of the Elements. London:

Academic Press. Cross WF, Benstead JP, Rosemond AD, and Wallace JB (2003) Consumer-resource stoichiometry in detritus-based streams. Ecology Letters 6: 721-732. Elser JJ, Acharya K, Kyle M, etal. (2003) Growth rate-stoichiometry couplings in diverse biota. Ecology Letters 6: 936-943. Elser JJ, Dowling T, Dobberfuhl DA, and O'Brien J (2000) The evolution of ecosystem processes: Ecological stoichiometry of a key herbivore in temperature and arctic habitats. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 13: 845-853.

Elser JJ, Fagan WF, Denno RF, et al. (2000) Nutritional constraints in terrestrial and freshwater food webs. Nature 408: 578-580.

Faerovig PJ and Hessen DO (2003) Allocation strategies in crustacean stoichiometry: The potential role of phosphorus in the limitation of reproduction. Freshwater Biology 48: 1782-1792.

Fagan WF, Siemann E, Mittler C, et al. (2002) Nitrogen in insects: Implications for trophic complexity and species diversification. American Naturalist 160: 784-802.

Gusewell S (2004) N:P ratios in terrestrial plants: Variation and functional significance. NewPhytologist 164: 243-266.

Gillooly JF, Allen AP, Brown JH, et al. (2005) The metabolic basis of whole-organism RNA and phosphorus content. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United State of America 102: 11923-11927.

Iyengar GV (1978) The Elemental Composition of Human Tissues and Body Fluids. New York: Verlag Chemie.

Johnston FA, Debrock L, and Diao EK (1958) The loss of calcium, phosphorus, iron, and nitrogen in hair from the scalp of women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6: 136-141.

Kay AD, Ashton IW, Gorokhova E, et al. (2005) Toward a stoichiometric framework for evolutionary biology. Oikos 109: 6-17.

Klausmeier CA, Litchman E, Daufresne T, and Levin SA (2004) Optimal nitrogen-to-phosphorus stoichiometry of phytoplankton. Nature 429: 171-174.

Murneek AE (1942) Quantitative distribution of nitrogen and carbohydrates in apple trees. Missouri Agricultural Experimental Station Research Bulletin 348, as reported in Sterner RW and Elser JJ (2002) Ecological Stoichiometry. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Reiners WA (1986) Complementary models for ecosystems. American Naturalist 127: 59-73.

Rundle SD, Spicer JI, Coleman RA, Vosper J, and Soane J (2004) Environmental calcium modifies induced defences in snails. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271: S67-S70.

Sterner RW and Elser JJ (2002) Ecological Stoichiometry. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Sterner RW and George NB (2000) Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry of cyprinid fishes. Ecology 81: 127-140.

Williams RJP and Frausto da Silva JJR (1996) The Natural Selection of the Chemical Elements: The Environment and Life's Chemistry. Oxford: Clarendon.

Woods HA, Fagan WF, Elser JJ, and Harrison JF (2004) Allometric and phylogenetic variation in insect phosphorus content. Functional Ecology 18: 103-109.

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