Boucher DH (1985) The Biology of Mutualism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bronstein JL (1994) Our current understanding of mutualism. Quarterly Review of Biology 69: 31-51.
Bronstein JL (1994) Conditional outcomes in mutualistic interactions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9: 214-217.
Bronstein JL (2001) Mutualism. In: Fox CW, Roff DA, and Fairbairn DJ (eds.) Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies, pp. 315-330. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bronstein JL (2001) The exploitation of mutualisms. Ecology Letters 4: 277-287.
Connor RC (1995) The benefits of mutualism - A conceptual framework. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 70: 427-457.
Hoeksema JD and Bruna EM (2000) Pursuing the big questions about interspecific mutualism: A review of theoretical approaches. Oecologia 125: 321-330.
Holland JN, DeAngelis DL, and Bronstein JL (2002) Population dynamics and mutualism: Functional responses of benefits and costs. American Naturalist 159: 231-244.
Holland JN, DeAngelis DL, and Schultz ST (2004) Evolutionary stability of mutualism: Interspecific population regulation as an evolutionarily stable strategy. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271: 1807-1814.
Holland JN, Ness JH, Boyle AL, and Bronstein JL (2005) Mutualisms as consumer-resource interactions. In: Barbosa P and Castellanos I (eds.) Ecology of Predator-Prey Interactions, pp. 17-33. New York: Oxford University Press.
Schwartz MW and Hoeksema JD (1998) Specialization and resource trade: Biological markets as a model of mutualisms. Ecology 79: 1029-1038.
Stanton ML (2003) Interacting guilds: Moving beyond the pairwise perspective on mutualisms. American Naturalist 162: S10-S23.
Vazquez DP, Morris WF, and Jordano P (2005) Interaction frequency as a surrogate for the total effect of animal mutualists on plants. Ecology Letters 8: 1088-1094.
Was this article helpful?
Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.