Further Reading

Aber JD, McDowell WH, Nadelhoffer, etal. (1998) Nitrogen saturation in temperate forest ecosystems: Hypotheses revisited. BioScience 48: 921-934.

Agrawal AA, Conner JK, and Stinchcombe JR (2004) Evolution of plant resistance and tolerance to frost damage. Ecology Letters 7: 1199-1208.

Chapin FS, III (1991) Effects of multiple environmental stresses on nutrient availability and use. In: Mooney HA, Winner WE, and Pell EJ (eds.) Response of Plants to Multiple Stresses, pp. 67-88. San Diego: Academic Press.

Gabriel W, Luttberg B, Sih A, and Tollrian R (2005) Environmental tolerance, heterogeneity, and the evolution of reversible plastic responses. American Naturalist 166: 339-353.

Grime JP (1989) The stress debate: Symptom of impending synthesis? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 37: 3-17.

Gutschick VP and BassiriRad H (2003) Tansely review: Extreme events as shaping physiology, ecology, and evolution of plants: Toward a unified definition and evaluation of their consequences. The New Phytologist 160: 21-42.

Hiddink JG (2005) Implications of Liebig's law of the minimum for the use of ecological indicators based on abundance. Ecography 28: 264-271.

Hoffmann AA and Parsons PA (1997) Extreme Environmental Change and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mittler R (2006) Abiotic stress, the field environment and stress combination. Trends in Plant Science 11: 15-19.

Niinemets U (2006) The controversy over traits conferring shade-tolerance in trees: Ontogenetic changes revisited. Journal of Ecology 94: 464-470.

Niinemets U and Valladares F (2006) Tolerance to shade, drought and waterlogging of temperate Northern Hemisphere trees and shrubs. Ecological Monographs 76: 521-547.

Osmond CB, Austin MP, Berry JA, et al. (1987) Stress physiology and the distribution of plants. BioScience 37: 38-48.

Rastetter EB and Shaver GR (1992) A model of multiple-element limitation for acclimating vegetation. Ecology 73: 1157-1174.

Sanchez-Gomez D, Valladares F, and Zavala MA (2006)

Performance of seedlings of Mediterranean woody species under experimental gradients of irradiance and water availability: Tradeoffs and evidence for niche differentiation. New Phytologist 170: 795-806.

Smith SD, Naumburg E, Niinemets U, and Germino MJ (2004) Environmental constraints. Leaf to landscape. In: In: Smith WK, Vogelmann TC, and Chritchley C (eds.) Photosynthetic Adaptation. Chloroplast to Landscape. Ecological Studies, 178, pp. 262-294. Berlin: Springer.

Valladares F and Pearcy RW (1997) Interactions between water stress, sun-shade acclimation, heat tolerance and photoinhibition in the sclerophyll Heteromeles arbutifolia. Plant, Cell and Environment 20: 25-36.

van der Ploeg RR, Böhm W, and Kirkham MB (1999) On the origin of the theory of mineral nutrition of plants and the Law of the Minimum. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63: 1055-1062.

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