Further Reading

Borchert JR (1950) The climate of the central North American grassland. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 40: 1-39.

Briggs JM, Knapp AK, Blair JM, et al. (2005) An ecosystem in transition: Woody plant expansion into mesic grassland. BioScience 55: 243-254.

Collins SL, Knapp AK, Briggs JM, Blair JM, and Steinauer EM (1998) Modulation of diversity by grazing and mowing in native tallgrass prairie. Science 280(5364): 745-747.

Collins SL and Wallace LL (1990) Fire in North American Tallgrass Prairies. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Frank DA and Inouye RS (1994) Temporal variation in actual evapotranspiration of terrestrial ecosystems: Patterns and ecological implications. Journal of Biogeography 21: 401-411.

French N (ed.) (1979) Perspectives in Grassland Ecology. Results and Applications of the United States International Biosphere Programme Grassland Biome Study. New York: Springer.

Knapp AK, Blair JM, Briggs JM, et al. (1999) The keystone role of bison in North American tallgrass prairie. BioScience 49: 39-50.

Knapp AK, Briggs JM, Hartnett DC, and Collins SL (1998) Grassland Dynamics: Long-Term Ecological Research in Tallgrass Prairie, 364pp. New York: Oxford University Press.

Loveland TR, Reed BC, Brown JF, et al. (1998) Development of a Global Land Cover Characteristics Database and IGBP DISCover from 1 km AVHRR Data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 21(6-7): 1303-1330.

McNaughton SJ (1985) Ecology of a grazing ecosystem: The serengeti. Ecological Monographs 55: 259-294.

Milchunas DG, Sala OE, and Lauenroth WK (1988) A generalized model of the effects of grazing by large herbivores on grassland community structure. American Naturalist 132: 87-106.

Oesterheld M, Loreti J, Semmartin M, and Paruelo JM (1999) Grazing, fire, and climate effects on primary productivity of grasslands and savannas. In: Walker LR (ed.) Ecosystems of the World, pp. 287-306. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Olson JS (1994) Global Ecosystem Framework - Definitions, 39pp. Sioux Falls, SD: USGS EDC.

Prasad V, Stromberg CAE, Alimohammadian H, and Sahni A (2005) Dinosaur coprolites and the early evolution of grasses and grazers. Science 310: 1177-1190.

Sala OE, Parton WJ, Joyce LA, and Lauenroth WK (1988) Primary production of the central grassland region of the United States. Ecology 69: 40-45.

Samson F and Knopf F (1994) Prairie conservation in North America. BioScience 44: 418-421.

Weaver JE (1954) North American Prairie. Lincoln, NE: Johnsen Publishing Company.

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