Further Reading

Allen TFH and Starr TB (1982) Hierarchy: Perspectives for Ecological Complexity. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Brown JH and West GB (2000) Scaling in Biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Calder WA (1984) Size, Function, and Life History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gilooly JF, Brown JH, West GB, Savage VM, and Charnov EL (2001) Effects of size and temperature on metabolic rate. Science 293:2248-2251.

Holling CS (1992) Cross-scale morphology, geometry, and dynamics of ecosystems. Ecological Monographs 62: 447-502.

Levin SA (1992) The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology 73: 1943-1967.

Lotka AJ (1925) Elements of Physical Biology. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.

Maurer BA (1994) Geographical Population Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Maurer BA (1999) Untangling Ecological Complexity: The Macroscopic Perspective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Morgan Ernest SK, Enquist BJ, Brown JH, etal. (2003) Thermodynamic and metabolic effects on the scaling of production and population energy use. Ecology Letters 6: 990-995.

Odum HT (1994) Ecological and General Systems: An Introduction to Systems Ecology, rev. edn. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado.

O'Neill RV, DeAngelis DL, Waide JB, and Allen TFH (1986) A Hierarchical Concept of Ecosystems. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Peterson DL and Parker VT (1998) Ecological Scale: Theory and Applications. New York: Columbia University Press.

Ricklefs RE (1987) Community diversity: Relative roles of local and regional processes. Science 235: 167-171.

Salthe SN (1985) Evolving Hierarchical Systems: Their Structure and Representation. New York: Columbia University Press.

Schneider DC (1994) Quantitative Ecology: Spatial and Temporal Scaling. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Turner MG, Gardner RH, and O'Neill RV (1995) Ecological dynamics at broad scales. Bioscience S29-S35.

West GB, Brown JH, and Enquist BJ (1999) The fourth dimension of life: Fractal geometry and allometric scaling of organisms. Science 284: 1677-1679.

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