Further Reading

Abrams PA, Menge BA, Mittelbach GG, Spiller DA, and Yodzis P (1996) The role of indirect effects in food webs. In: Polis G and Winemiller K (eds.) Food Webs: Integration of Patterns and Dynamics, pp. 371-395. New York: Chapman and Hall (also see other papers in this book).

Budiko MI (1977) Global'naya Ekologiya (Global Ecology). Moscow: Misl'(in Russian).

Fath BD and Patten BC (1998) Network synergism: Emergence of positive relations in ecological systems. Ecological Modelling 107: 127-143.

Fath BD and Patten BC (1999) Review of the foundations of network environ analysis. Ecosystems 2: 167-179.

Fleeger JW, Carman KR, and Nisbet RM (2003) Indirect effects of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Science of the Total Environment 317: 207-233.

Herendeen RA (1998) Ecological Numeracy. Quantitative Analysis of Environmental Issues. Toronto: Wiley.

Kawanabe H, Cohen JE, and Iwasaki K (1993) Mutualism and Community Organisation: Behavioral, Thoretical and Food Web Approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Korhonen J (2001) Industrial ecosystems - Some conditions for success. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 8: 29-39.

Krivtsov V (2004) Investigations of indirect relationships in ecology and environmental sciences: A review and the implications for comparative theoretical ecosystem analysis. Ecological Modelling 174(1-2): 37-54.

Menge BA (1995) Indirect effects in marine rocky intertidal interaction webs - Patterns and importance. Ecological Monographs 65: 21-74.

Miller TE and Travis J (1996) The evolutionary role of indirect effects in communities. Ecology 77: 1329-1335.

Patten BC, Bosserman RW, Finn JT, and Gale WG (1976)

Propagation of cause in ecosystems. In: Patten BC (ed.) Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, pp. 457-579. New York: Academic Press.

Schoener TW (1983) Field experiments on interspecific competition. American Naturalist 122: 240-285.

Strauss SY (1991) Indirect effects in community ecology - Their definition, study, and importance. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 6: 206-210.

Wardle DA (2002) Communities and Ecosystems. Linking the

Aboveground and Belowground Components. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Wootton JT (1994) The nature and consequences of indirect effects in ecological communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 25: 443-466.

Wootton JT (2002) Indirect effects in complex ecosystems: Recent progress and future challenges. Journal of Sea Research 48: 157-172.

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