Future Research Needs

Additional research is needed on the development of dynamic, physiologically based insect models for simulating yield losses in real-time pest-crop agroecosystems. These types of models have great potential for improving decision making in IPM across many real and hypothetical pest-infestation scenarios and cropping conditions. Further efforts in modeling insect adaptation to crop rotation and transgenic crops would be useful toward helping farmers develop dynamic management strategies for using transgenic corn in areas with or without rotation-resistant phenotypes. Improvements are also needed in characterizing the mechanisms responsible for evolution of pest resistance to both crop rotation and transgenic corn. In addition, current models for insect adaptation to crop rotation and transgenic crops typically assume spatially homogeneous field/farm conditions. Future models of this type could consider the use of transgenic corn in more spatially complex refuge configurations, and additional field and modeling research is needed in considering the use of insecticides in conjunction with transgenic corn.

Soybeans (rotated with corn)

Rotated corn (refuge)

Rotated corn (Bt)

Continuous corn (Bt)

Continuous corn (refuge)

Year 1

Rotated corn (Bt)

Rotated corn (refuge)

Soybeans (rotated with corn)

Continuous corn (Bt)

Continuous corn (refuge)

Year 2

Soybeans (rotated with corn)

Rotated corn (Bt)

Rotated corn (refuge)

Continuous corn (Bt)

Continuous corn (refuge)

Year 3

Rotated corn (refuge)

Rotated corn (Bt)

Soybeans (rotated with corn)

Continuous corn (Bt)

Continuous corn (refuge)

Year 4

Figure 2 Space-time model representation for simulating the simultaneous evolution of pest resistance to both crop rotation and transgenic crops.

The importance of field observations and experimental measurements of crop and insect dynamics in the use of models to evaluate IPM systems cannot be emphasized enough. Models of pest dynamics often perform poorly over the long term; thus it is necessary to update the model with current information from the field. Many phenomena of interest require careful planning and long-term commitments from the researcher, and research studies can span several insect generations or seasons. Designing and implementing well-planned experimental sampling programs is a challenge, especially given time, labor, and cost constraints. Further field studies to obtain data on crop growth and development, crop damage, and pest phenology and density are particularly important. In addition, more intensive field sampling should help farmers identify whether they face a problem from rotation-resistant insects in the future, in which case decisions can be made on how to balance the planting of transgenic corn between continuously cropped fields and rotated fields.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Trash To Cash

Trash To Cash

This book will surely change your life due to the fact that after reading this book and following through with the steps that are laid out for you in a clear and concise form you will be earning as much as several thousand extra dollars a month,  as you can see by the cover of the book we will be discussing how you can make cash for what is considered trash by many people, these are items that have value to many people that can be sold and help people who need these items most.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment