General Evolutionary Rules

1. Evolution is irreversible (the principle of L. Dollo, 1893). Why does the return to former conditions not lead to recurrence of old forms? There are at least two explanations. First, energetic innovations found during the previous stages of the evolution will not be lost if they are effective. Second, change of a living form is reflected in surrounding ones; the form can regress only together with its community. It is not so probable, although sometimes an ecosystem can degrade - not because of degradation of developed forms, but as a result of their elimination and return to the forefront of primitive forms.

2. Evolution is a movement from simple to complex, but the simple is not destroyed - it is included in the new structure of life. According to A. Szent-Gyorgyi, life never revises what has been made, but it builds above the existing. The cell is similar to a lot of archeological diggings, where one can see a number of strata - the older, the deeper. The structure is not optimal, but is reliable; the damage of upper layers is not fatal - ancient mechanisms can smooth the blow.

3. Complexity growth stimulates self-organization process. As is shown by J. von Neumann's model of self-organizing automata, the ability to self-organize depends on complexity of the object. There is a critical level, beginning from which automata can reproduce more complex forms than themselves. During its development, life also passed through critical levels, which forced its tendency to progressive evolution.

4. Evolution has often a binary character. Evolving systems can consist of two closely connected parts such as DNA-proteins, cell-nucleus, male-female, etc. During active stages of evolution one part outstrips the other; the first one becomes an object for experiments, and the second one guarantees preservation of attained level.

5. Life uses for its self-organization, natural frequencies (modes) of component systems. Some modes can intercept incoming energy from other ones and intensify themselves. This effect has resonance nature and is close to information phenomenon. Octave principles can take place - structures are formed by series on multiple frequencies. It is one of the ways of forming hierarchy of living systems.

6. Spatial self-organization of life can be considered as a process of dissipative structures' formation - one of the nonlinear mechanisms of originating order from disorder.

7. Life evolution is directed from profound symmetry to absolute asymmetry. The main stages are ball, radial, axial, and bilateral symmetries, and triaxial asymmetry. The asymmetry is a reaction on anisotropy of the living space, for example, gravity anisotropy.

8. Evolutionary process is not so much an invention of new forms as a search for effective combinations of existing ones. Various living beings are built from the same standard bricks, which were formed during early stages of evolution.

9. Evolution evolves itself. In the history of life, there were several 'evolutionary formations', characterized by special evolutionary factors and features of self-organization forms.

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