General Fluctuating Environments

For general fluctuating environments p can be calculated through the following scheme:

• Start from some positive vector M(0), with 1tM(0) = 1.

• Successively calculate vectors M(t) and numbers w(t), t = 1,2,..., from

(i) As an intermediate step, first calculate a vector L(t + 1) for discrete time, from

for continuous time, from dL = B(r )L

(iii) Normalize to

Calculate fitness as

Tn T

(In theory the last formula can also be rearranged by letting yu{d(E, iM)} denote the fraction of time the pair (E(t), M(t)) spends in a small set {d(E, M)}:

However, this formula has far less practical use than its scalar counterpart.)

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