There are many definitions of GIS. For instance, Burrough in 1986 defined GIS as a powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming, and displaying spatial data from the real world. Parker defined it in 1988 as an information technology which stores, analyzes, and displays both spatial and nonspatial data. Lo and Yeung, in 2002, generally defined GIS as a set of computer-based systems for managing geographic data and using these data to solve spatial problems. In 2005, Longley et al. defined GIS as a tool for performing operations on geographic data that are too tedious or expensive or inaccurate if performed by hand.

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