Glossary

ADP - Adenosine diphosphate, a high-energy molecule similar to ATP but with one less phosphate, is generally produced either by dephosphorylation of ATP or by phosphorylation of AMP.

aerobic respiration - Cellular respiration that employs oxygen (O2) as a final electron acceptor. anaerobic respiration - Cellular respiration that employs something other than oxygen as a final electron acceptor.

ATP - Adenosine triphosphate, a phosphate compound that is the carrier of readily available potential energy within cells, is synthesized via the phosphorylation of ADP.

Cellular respiration - Chemotrophic ATP-generating biochemical pathways that involve electron-transport systems.

chemiosmosis - Proton gradient-driven enzymatic synthesis of ATP from ADP.

chemolithotrophic respiration - Cellular respiration for which electron donors are inorganic compounds. chemoorganotrophic respiration - Cellular respiration for which electron donors are organic compounds (e.g., glucose); end products can include such well-oxidized compounds such as CO2. chemotrophic - Description of organisms that obtain energy from chemicals (rather than from light). electron acceptor (oxidants) - Chemical species, the most well known of which is oxygen, that receive electrons from electron donors.

electron donor - Chemical source of reducing power (high energy electrons).

electron transport systems (ETS) - Series of electron carrier molecules, found embedded in membranes, which harness energy associated with electron transfer to pump protons to drive chemiosmosis. endosymbiosis -The cytoplasmic acquisition of a cellular species (e.g., a bacterium) as an intracellular organelle; explanation for the origin of mitochondria. final electron acceptor - The chemical substance that receives electrons that have been depleted in energy/ reducing power during passage through an electron-transport system. For aerobic respiration, the final electron acceptor is oxygen.

horizontal (or lateral) gene transfer - The movement (and retention) of genetic material from the genome of one species to the genome of a different species. NAD+ - The oxidized form of NADH, an electron carrier. NADH - Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is a common intracellular electron carrier which supplies electrons to ETSs.

oxidation - Removal of electrons from a chemical substance.

reduction - Addition of electrons to a chemical substance.

respiration - Intake of O2 and removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) to and from, for example, animal bodies. substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP) -Transfer of phosphate groups directly from biochemical intermediates (such as phosphoenol pyruvate or via adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate) to ADP to form ATP (does not involve ETS).

zonation - Spatial differentiation of environments into biologically distinct sectors.

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