Habitat Compatibility

The match of primary (native) and secondary (adventive) environments, both in terms of climate and habitat compatibility, is generally accepted as a prerequisite of successful invasion. However, some habitats can support life forms that are for some historical and/or evolutionary reasons not present in local floras, leaving such 'open niches' to invasions; examples include climbing fern Lygodium japoni-cum in bottomland hardwoods from Louisiana to Florida, Acacia and Pinus tree species in South African fynbos shrub-lands, mangroves Rhizophora mangle in treeless coastal marshes of Hawaii, and the tree Cinchonapubescens in mountain shrub communities on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. These examples support the principle that the competitive inhibition of invaders increases with their functional similarity to resident abundant species.

Figure 2 Causal relationships between factors and processes which determine invasions of alien species into plant communities. Only positive or negative effects are indicated; if no symbol is associated with an arrow, the effect can be negative or positive, depending on situation. Thick arrows indicate the principal factors. * = spatial heterogeneity, (micro) climate, and long-term regime of available resources and toxic compounds. The key components are in boxes. Adapted from Rejmanek M, Richardson DM and Pysek P (2005) Plant invasions and invasibility of plant communities. In Van der Maarel E (ed.) Vegetation Ecology, pp. 332-355. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Figure 2 Causal relationships between factors and processes which determine invasions of alien species into plant communities. Only positive or negative effects are indicated; if no symbol is associated with an arrow, the effect can be negative or positive, depending on situation. Thick arrows indicate the principal factors. * = spatial heterogeneity, (micro) climate, and long-term regime of available resources and toxic compounds. The key components are in boxes. Adapted from Rejmanek M, Richardson DM and Pysek P (2005) Plant invasions and invasibility of plant communities. In Van der Maarel E (ed.) Vegetation Ecology, pp. 332-355. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

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