The residual uncertainty Hc, when scaled by TST is also called the overhead. The overhead represents the unorganized, inefficient, and indeterminate part of the flow structure and is considered an insurance for the system. Should the system become overly organized (high ascendency), it will also be prone to perturbations. The overhead is split into four components: overhead due to imports, exports, respiration, and internal pathways. The combined overhead is denoted by
Scaling Hc to the system by replacing k with TST yields
The relationship between C, A, and $ so becomes
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