Herbicides are widely used to remove invasive species, but the success of their application depends on the situation and the species involved. Herbicide eliminated E. crassipes (Figure 4) in Lake Hartbeespoort, South Africa, but only after four large-scale aerial spraying episodes followed by spot spraying from boats. Sometimes herbicides work best in combination with other removal methods. For example, woody invasive species in grassland or forest situations can be controlled by a combination of hand cutting and application of an appropriate herbicide to the cut stump. Without the herbicide, most woody species simply grow back from the stump after cutting. The bright side to this method is that it is an effective method of woody species removal, but at the same time releasing very little herbicide to the surrounding environment.
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