Indicators Based on Concentration of Selected Elements

Many assessments are based on measurements or monitoring of concentrations or densities of selected elements that can be linked with altering systems states. In the context of environmental management, a link to anthropogenic activities is convenient for example done with the estimation of the level of eutrophication on the basis of the total phosphorus concentration. Another typical measurement is the pH value, referring to the activity of hydrogen ions, which for instance can be linked to effects of air pollution (acid rain).

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