Instability of the Water Surface Bubbles and Sprays

The dramatically strong enhancement of the gas transfer across the interface through the presence of bubbles and sprays is important mainly in the oceanographic context. Breaking waves lead to the development of bubbles as well as sprays into the atmosphere. This results in a significant increase of the actual surface area and a stronger turbulence intensity. Thus, the reaeration rate increases significantly when waves are present. An increase in the transfer velocity up to a factor of 3 to 5 compared to a smooth interface is observed, in particular at high wind speeds (>5 m s~ ).

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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