The dramatically strong enhancement of the gas transfer across the interface through the presence of bubbles and sprays is important mainly in the oceanographic context. Breaking waves lead to the development of bubbles as well as sprays into the atmosphere. This results in a significant increase of the actual surface area and a stronger turbulence intensity. Thus, the reaeration rate increases significantly when waves are present. An increase in the transfer velocity up to a factor of 3 to 5 compared to a smooth interface is observed, in particular at high wind speeds (>5 m s~ ).
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