The recently described concept of IMTA provides an alternative approach for sustainable aquaculture. Intensive culture of fish or shrimp is now being practiced in many places as integrated units with seaweeds and mollusk culture. In these IMTA systems, the extractive components (seaweed and mollusks) extract their nutrients from the effluents of the fed components (fish or shrimp). Solar energy drives the productivity of these IMTA systems. This approach, besides being a form of balanced ecosystem management, prevents potential environmental impacts from fed aquaculture. It also provides exciting new opportunities for valuable crops of seaweeds. The seaweed IMTA component may include species of Porphyra, Laminaria, Undaria, and Gracilaria.
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