## Introduction

In environmental modeling, biologists or agricultural scientists are often able to describe a process quite well, but find it difficult to construct a mathematical model. One such a problem is the modeling of alteration in wildlife-habitat quality caused by climate change, pollution, new management methods in agriculture, etc. A further example is the calculation of agricultural yield for different management strategies under changing climate conditions. Such problems often involve uncertainties. Fuzzy-set modeling can help one to cope with this uncertainty.

Fuzzy-set theory and fuzzy-set control theory provide methods to describe:

• the input ranges for the model;

• the output ranges for the model;

• a method for defuzzification.

These methods will be further explained. To use fuzzy-set models for environmental modeling a method must be provided to enable use of these models in a spatial context. This can be done as part of a geographic information system (GIS) or with a special software toolbox like the Matlab fuzzy toolbox or the open source software SAMT.

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