This article summarizes the current state of knowledge of global biogeochemical cycles that are especially relevant to climate and its coevolution with life. Following basic definitions is a short history of the essential concepts, including Gaia theory, followed by a survey ofthe carbon biogeochemical cycle operating on different timescales, concluding with a discussion of those aspects of the cycles of oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur relevant to climate, and overall implications to bio-spheric evolution.
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