Introduction

Some of the background work for the field of artificial neural networks (ANNs) occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This consisted primarily of interdisciplinary work in physics, psychology, and neurophysiology. This early work emphasized general theories of learning, vision, conditioning, etc., and did not include specific mathematical models of neuron operation. These new developments reinvigorated the field of neural networks. During the last two decades, great deals of papers have been published and a lot of different types of ANNs were investigated. Neural networks have been applied in diverse fields including aerospace, automotive, banking, defense, electronics, entertainment, financial, insurance, manufacturing, medical, oil and gas, speech, securities, telecommunications, transportation, and environment. In ecological area, the ANN models started to be used at the beginning of 1990, but they are more popular from later 1990s.

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