Introduction

Cells and organisms are open systems capable of sustaining a continuous trafficking of material with the environment. The function termed 'excretion' includes all the processes of removing the waste products of cellular metabolism from the body. Three main pathways are involved: (1) the excretion through specialized structures such as kidneys; (2) the respiratory system; and (3) the gastrointestinal track. To increase the efficiency of catabolite removal and to avoid their toxic effects on the organism, massive water movements are generated at the level of the interfaces specialized for this function. Osmotic and/or hydrostatic gradients across the excreting epithelia are of fundamental importance for generating such water flows. Thus, excretion is strongly linked to the osmoregulation of body fluids and to the water and electrolytes balance of the organism. Since several metabolic wastes can exchange protons, excretion is also linked to the pH regulation.

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10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

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