Introduction

Despite their extremely powerful defense mechanisms, many organisms still have to face attack from organisms that evolved efficient counterdefense strategies. Thus, even very well defended organisms are often victims of some specialist attackers. For instance, the marine anemones (Palythoa and Zoanthus) being protected with the highly toxic palytoxin (LD50 10 ngkg-1) (see Defense Strategies of Marine and Aquatic Organisms) are consumed by the fish Alutera scripta indicating that some species obviously have gained a counterdefense mechanism which renders them resistant against this toxin.

As general counterdefense mechanism toxins can be avoided, excreted, detoxified, or the attacking organisms are adapted to the poison. This article presents some examples for the different strategies how organisms cope with the defensive arsenal of their victims.

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