Landscape Diversity

Unlike biological diversity, landscape diversity combines biotic and abiotic constituents. As the landscape diversity is assessed using cosmic images, it is maximum for territories without vegetation and minimum for rainy tropical forests of Amazonia. This effect is determined by a more complete absorption of solar radiation by plants that transform it into energy spent for evaporation, production, internal energy, and heat flow. Upon the transformation of solar radiation, vegetation (due to the species diversity) lowers the diversity of reflection (in each particular variant of the environment, there is found a plant species with the most efficient absorption). In this case, Ashby's 'law of the necessary diversity' manifests itself. The same effect is also true for the diversity of the soil cover and other abiotic factors. Autofluctuations described by the Holling's model of panarchy are imposed upon the general trend of evolution of living matter and socium.

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