Living Matter

If a system is open and dissipative, its diversity and non-stationarity is supported by the flow of information and energy from the environment. The system selects an order from the environment and increases its entropy (disturbs its own environment).

Living matter differs from abiotic one. As V. I. Vernadsky in 1926 wrote, ''living organisms change the course of the biosphere equilibrium (unlike abiotic substance) and represent specific autonomic formations, as if special secondary systems of dynamic equilibria in the primary thermodynamic field of the biosphere.'' According to Jorgensen's ideas, they also increase their own exergy (useful work) supporting their local stability in aggressive medium. Probably, the maximization of stability via increasing exergy is not the single way of survival. Many organisms make the stability maximum at very low energy expenditures via the complexity of their own structure that decrease the destructive action of the environment.

Evolution of living systems appears to be founded on mechanisms that do not fit the framework of three principles of thermodynamics. Nowadays, a satisfactory physical model of this evolution is absent. An empirical fact is the growth of biological diversity (see Average Taxonomic Diversity and Distinctness and Biodiversity) in time according to hypergeometric progression. The mode of the statistical model shows that in the course of evolution, the dimension of the space as well as the volume of resources increase (Figure 1).

• Model 1. log(number of families)= (-0.078 61 + 0.031 733 log T)T log T, where T is the time (unit of measurement is 1 million years).

• Model 2. Number of families = exp(0.030 053 (1.038 47t)T ).

The younger the taxon, the faster the growth of its diversity. The rate (AT) of evolution increases in time (Figure 2) as AT = constant x T-3 7 (R2 = 0.53). In order to explain this phenomenon, the memory about the past successes and failures in the synthesis ofnew structures and variability that allow opening new possibilities ofthe environment should be added. The thermodynamic law of ce 3

ce 3

}

1

/

1

2

3

1 - The logarithm of number of families

2 - Information model (1)

3 - Malthusian model (2)

-4000 -3500 -3000 -2500 -2000 -1500 -1000 -500 0 -3750 -3250 -2750 -2250 -1750 -1250 -750 -250 Time (1 million years)

1 - The logarithm of number of families

2 - Information model (1)

3 - Malthusian model (2)

-4000 -3500 -3000 -2500 -2000 -1500 -1000 -500 0 -3750 -3250 -2750 -2250 -1750 -1250 -750 -250 Time (1 million years)

Figure 1 Changes of a global biodiversity biological variety at a level of families on a database (Fossil Record 2). Based on Puzachenko Yu G (2006) A global biological variety and his (its) spatially times changes. In: Kasimov NS (ed.) Recent Global Changes of the Natural Environment, vol. 1, pp. 306-737. Moscow: Scientific World (in Russian).

Figure 2 The proper time (AT) change.

Time from the beginning of evolution (million years)

Figure 2 The proper time (AT) change.

evolution for living matter appears to reduce to a decrease of expenditures per unit of complexity (1 bit). Such structures extracting energy and substance from the environment can keep the area far from equilibrium for a long time.

Phenomenology of changes in the number of species as a function of environmental quality with regard to the time of continuous development is within the framework of this model.

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