HSSF CWs require good mechanical pretreatment with suspended solids being the major target. Excessive suspended solids may cause filtration-bed clogging and subsequent surface flow. Small systems for domestic sewage with low flows usually use a three-chamber septic tank. Pretreatment in systems designed for municipal sewage mostly comprise screens and Imhoff tank. When stormwater runoff is also treated (combined sewer system), a grit chamber is included (Figures 3 and 4). If wastewater contains oils and/or grease, the grease filter should be a part of the pretreatment. Various types of wastewater may require different types of pretreatment; for example, landfill leachate treatment systems usually include aerated lagoons, systems for the treatment of concentrated wastewaters from agricultural operations commonly include facultative lagoons.
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