In order to simplify the process and make LCIA more broadly applicable, modeling is typically conducted at the midpoint level instead of modeling effects to specific endpoints (see the ozone depletion potential example below). Midpoint impact assessment models reflect the relative potency of the stressors at a common midpoint within the cause-effect chain. Analysis at a midpoint minimizes the amount of forecasting and effect modeling incorporated into the LCIA, thereby reducing the complexity of the modeling and often simplifying communication. Midpoint modeling can minimize assumptions and value choices, reflect a higher level of societal consensus, and provide more comprehensive than model coverage for endpoint estimation (Figure 3; Table 1).
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