Models including ecological and economic factors

Since the mid-1990s, it has been increasingly recognized that grazing systems are not only a matter of vegetation and herbivores, but are tightly embedded into the social and economic system. Even if a rancher or a pastoralist would have knowledge of the full dynamical features of his grazing system, socioeconomic factors or governmental regulations may force him not to adopt the ecologically optimal management strategy. Simulation modeling is ideally suited to solve conflicts between resource conservation and economic production because extensive simulation experiments, analyzed within the framework of ecological economics, allow for testing a broad range of management strategies and facilitate a systematic search for optimal strategies which balance between resource conservation and economic production. Here, risk assessment and multicriteria decision analysis are required to deal with the considerable uncertainty imposed by environmental and economic factors.

See also-. Alpine Ecosystems and the High-Elevation Treeline; Ecosystem Ecology; Ecosystem Patterns and Processes; Grassland Models; Optimal Foraging Theory; Prey-Predator Models; Savanna; Stability.

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