The focus of landscape models frequently extends beyond the static mapping of landscape pattern to the dynamic consideration of the constraints of pattern on ecological processes. This class of models is concerned with the influence of landscape spatial heterogeneity on ecological interactions and fluxes, such as the effects of fragmentation on the movement of plants, animals, material, and energy through the landscape. These models include those categorized as spatially distributed ecosystem process models, which tend to focus on biogeochemical cycling and local plant interactions, and models of dispersal and landscape connectivity, which emphasize the relationship between habitat patches and the background ecological matrix. We provide examples of these two broad approaches to applying principles of landscape pattern analysis to the modeling of ecological processes.
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