All monocarpic perennials spend more than a year in a vegetative stage before flowering once and then dying (Figure 2). Monocarpic perennials are mostly herbs and shrubs. The length of the vegetative period can be highly variable between plant species, from strictly biennial to long-lived monocarpic perennials. The population dynamics of this group of plants strongly depend on the environmental cues that determine flowering, which will subsequently lead to the death of reproductive individuals. Hence, events of heavy seed production are inevitably associated to events of high mortality among reproductive plants.
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