Online Chemical Modeling

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In general, the quality of the atmospheric environment in cities is related to at least the following factors: air pollution, urban climate, meteorological conditions, and population exposure. It is reasonable to consider them together due to the following reasons:

1. meteorology is the main source of uncertainty in UAP and emergency preparedness models;

2. complex and combined effects of meteorological and pollution components on human health (e.g., in the hot summer of 2003 in France with a large number of mortality cases); and

3. effects of pollutants/aerosols on urban climate and meteorological events (such as precipitation and thunderstorms).

Quantification of the combined effect of biometeorological factors together with the effects of air pollution is also a major issue. In this context two levels of the integration strategy are considered in the paper:

1. Offline integration of Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population Exposure models for urban air pollution forecast and emergency preparedness, which is the main issue, for example, in the EC FUMAPEX project.

2. Online integration of mesoscale meteorological models and atmospheric aerosol and chemical transport models with consideration of the feedbacks of air pollution (e.g. urban aerosols) on meteorological processes and urban climate. This direction is developed by several research organizations and considered in the new COST Action 728 (see the section titled 'Relevant websites'). This will lead to a new generation of models for 'chemical weather forecasting', a goal that is being investigated via the COST action ES0602 (see the section titled 'Relevant websites').

One example of the online integrated MetM-CTM systems - Enviro-HIRLAM - is developing by DMI. Recently they have developed a new version of the meteorological model HIRLAM with online integrated tracer and have implemented a versatile aerosol-cloud module and heterogeneous chemistry in their Atmospheric Chemical Transport Model.

The following aspects in development of integrated models are very important in this respect:

1. Testing the quality of operational NWP systems for AQ modeling in urban areas;

2. Improvement of parametrization of urban atmospheric processes and urban physiographic data classification;

3. Development of meteo-processor and interface between urban-scale NWP and UAP models, and

4. Online integrated MetM-CTM systems for urban and mesoscale.

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The Basic Survival Guide

The Basic Survival Guide

Disasters: Why No ones Really 100 Safe. This is common knowledgethat disaster is everywhere. Its in the streets, its inside your campuses, and it can even be found inside your home. The question is not whether we are safe because no one is really THAT secure anymore but whether we can do something to lessen the odds of ever becoming a victim.

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