Different authors have used different classifications of defenses based on the predation cycle, but they are largely similar. As in the above classification, defenses often fall into more than one category. This can be seen as a disadvantage, but it also expresses that many defenses function in several ways. Some classifications do not include defenses that prevent predators from searching (step 1 defenses according to the above terminology). For example, Edmunds divided defenses into primary and secondary ones, where primary defenses involve step 2-4 defenses according to the above classification, and where secondary defenses equal step 5 defenses. Primary and secondary defenses have also been called pre- and postcontact defenses, respectively. Endler used the following categories: encounter defenses (= step 2 defenses); detection defenses (= step 3 defenses); identification defenses (= step 4 defenses); approach defenses, subjugation defenses (both together form the group of step 5 defenses); and consumption defenses (similar to step 1 defenses).
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