Other Habitat Selection Behaviors

Individuals have to choose a habitat or patch in many other situations. In species where mating occurs in a different place than the remaining of breeding activity (e.g., lekking species), individuals have to select an optimal displaying habitat or patch, and within the patch, an optimal site, for example, close to a dominant male, or within a light spot in low-light-intensity environments. For instance, if visual signals are used in mate choice, the environment chosen to display can affect mating success because signal appearance depends on the joint effect of ambient light and individual's reflectance spectra (Figure 7). Similarly, individuals may have to choose among alternative resting habitats or patches. In this case, the main resource is a safe site from predators or a site allowing individuals to optimize energy expenditure (e.g., against cold or rain).

Migration can be considered as an extreme form of habitat selection, when individuals change habitat because resource availability is seasonal while individuals' requirements remain unchanged. However, migration behavior is a fixed habitat selection process, individuals changing habitat similarly year after year. During migration, individuals will choose stopover areas, but this choice can be considered as classical foraging habitat choice, constraints of which include energy requirements and costs of long-distance flights.

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