For some species, age is not a good indicator of condition. A stage-based matrix is a more general matrix model where life history stages replace age classes. The fundamental assumption of the stage-based matrix, also known as the Lefkovitch matrix, is that all individuals in a given stage are subject to identical mortality, growth, and fecundity schedules. The population projection matrix MB describes the

Fo |
Fi |
F2 |
■ ■■ Fm - 1 |
Fm | |

Po |
0 |
0 |
... 0 |
0 | |

Ma = |
0 |
Pi |
0 |
■ 0 |
0 |

0 |
0 |
P2 |
... 0 |
0 | |

0 |
0 |
0 |
■■■ Pm - 1 |
0 |

data or from a statistical distribution fitted to historical data. With stochastic models and the addition of random variables one will not get the same output each time the model is run. When modeling an endangered species, for example, the population may grow after one simulation and decline to extinction after another.

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